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Alkarske igre - tradicija koja se nastavlja

Digitalni repozitorij Sveučilišta Jurja Dobrile u Puli

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Polje Vrijednost
 
Naslov Alkarske igre - tradicija koja se nastavlja
Jousting Tournaments - a tradition that continues
 
Autor Starčić, Branka
 
Tema DRUŠTVENE ZNANOSTI. Ekonomija. Trgovina i turizam.
SOCIAL SCIENCES. Economics. Trade and Tourism.
alkarske igre
trka na prstenac
sinjska alka
 
Opis Alkarske igre, igre trčanja i gađanja u metu (prstenac/alku), proizašle su iz
srednjovjekovnih viteških turnira. Vrhunac popularnosti doživjele su u 17. stoljeću, kada su se
održavale i na području današnje Hrvatske. U Istri tako postoje zapisi o onima u Barbanu i
Savičenti, u Dalmaciji su se trčale u Zadru, Makarskoj, Imotskom, Dubrovniku te ona u Sinju
koja se trči i danas. Na njima su mogli sudjelovati samo plemići ili bogatiji građani koji su
posjedovali konja i potrebnu opremu. Postupnim nestajanjem feudalnog sustava, nestaju i ove
igre, s iznimkom barbanske Trke koja je obnovljena i Sinjske alke koja se održava kontinuirano.
Zbog svog zabavnog karaktera, takve igre na sebe nisu svraćale veću pozornost svojih
suvremenih pisaca, pa su zapisi o njima vrlo oskudni. Oni zapisi koji se uspjeli sačuvati, vrijedni
su podaci koji svjedoče o prošlosti ovih natjecanja.
Prvi najstariji zapis o Trki na prstenac u Barbanu je iz 1696. Radi se o prijepisu Proglasa
koji je tadašnji feudalni gospodar Barbana objavio povodom održavanja slobodnog sajma o
blagdanu Duhova. Kako bi privukli što više posjetitelja, organizirana je i Trka na prstenac.
Proglasom je utvrđeno osam točaka prema kojima se trka odvija. Na njoj je sudjelovalo deset
konjanika, a pobijedio je Ottavio Quellis. Sačuvane su zabilješke o još tri trke, do 1703., kada se
gubi pisani trag o ovom natjecanju u Barbanu.
Na inicijativu barbanskih aktivista, 1976., prema povijesnim podacima, obnovljena je
Trka na prstenac. Od tada se održava svake godine u mjesecu kolovozu. Manifestacija traje tri
dana, a započinje u petak podizanjem zastave Društva trka na prstenac. U subotu slijedi niz
sportskih događanja i natjecanje u Trki za viticu, koje je ujedno i generalna proba, dok je u
nedjelju glavno natjecanje. Petnaest dana ranije počinju se održavati pripreme i kvalifikacije
konjanika. Trka se odvija prema Pravilima donesenima 1976., temeljene na onima iz 1696., te
prema nadopuni iz 2002. U natjecanju sudjeluje 16 konjanika od 18 do 60 godina starosti, koji su
rođeni na području Istre i Liburnije. Od starta do prstenca staza je dugačka 150 metara, a
konjanici je moraju prijeći u punom galopu konja u vremenu od 12 sekundi. Konjanici kopljem
pokušavaju pogoditi prstenac (metu) koji je obješen na konopcu iznad staze. Prstenac se sastoji
od dva koncentrična kruga međusobno povezanih prečkama, tvoreći tako četiri vanjska polja i
jedno središnje. Pogodak u sredinu donosi tri boda, polje iznad dva boda, polje ispod jedan bod,
polja lijevo i desno pola boda. Pobjednik je onaj koji u tri trke osvoji najviše bodova (punti).
Konjanici nose tradicionalnu narodnu nošnju kraja iz kojeg dolaze, moraju imati svu propisanu
opremu i svog kopljonošu. Kopljonoše im pomažu oko brige o konjima te na kraju trke
prihvaćaju koplje konjanika. Konjanici, kopljonoše, podizači prstenca i članovi Časnog suda,
sastavni su dio Trke i povorke koja prije natjecanja prolazi kroz Barban prema trkalištu na
Gradišću. U četrdeset godina održavanja, otkako je obnovljena, Trka je postala dio lokalne i
regionalne tradicije i jedna od prepoznatljivih turističkih manifestacija Istre.
Slično konjičko natjecanje održava se u Sinju, u Cetinskoj krajini. Alka je također
natjecanje u kojem alkari pokušavaju pogoditi alku (metu) postavljenu na konopcu preko
trkališta. Od svojih početaka Alka se održava u spomen na pobjedu nad Turcima 1715. i u čast
Gospe Sinjske koja je prema legendi spasila grad. Najstariji pisani spomen Alke dva su soneta i
oda koje je spjevao Julije Bajamonti 1784. Njezin temeljni akt prema kojem se i danas održava,
Statut je iz 1833. Njime je propisan čitav tijek priprema za Alku, ceremonije koja se održava na
dan Alke, tko su sudionici, kakva im je odora i oprema, ustrojstvo alkarske povorke i tijek
natjecanja.
Pripreme za Alku započinju petnaest dana ranije, tzv. prove. Dva dana ranije održava se
natjecanje za Baru, a dan ranije za Čoju. Obje se igraju prema istim pravilima kao Alka, samo što
sudionici ne nose svečane odore. Na dan Alke, svečanost započinje u ranu zoru te se tijekom
dana održavaju razna događanja. Prije natjecanja alkari se okupljaju u Alkarskim dvorima, gdje
vojvoda izvršava smotru oružja, opreme i ukrasa alkara. Potom se formira alkarska povorka koja
kreće prema alkarskom trkalištu. Povorka je jedan od najimpresivnijih dijelova svečanosti, a
sastoji se od vojvode, čete alkara, čete momaka i pratnje. Alkari su odjeveni u starinske raskošne
odore viših društvenih slojeva. Odore vojvode i alaj-čauša, zapovjednika alkarske čete, bogatije
su i raskošnije od ostalih. Alkarski momci obučeni su u starinske narodne nošnje cetinskih
seljaka. Konji su također raskošno opremljeni, posebno vojvodin konj i konj edek – jedini konj
kojeg nitko ne jaše i koji predstavlja ratni plijen iz 1715.
O održavanju i organizaciji Alke brine se Viteško alkarsko društvo u Sinju i jedino
njegovi članovi mogu sudjelovati u Alki. Alka se trči svake godine u kolovozu na stazi zvanoj
Alkarsko trkalište. U natjecanju sudjeluje 11 – 17 alkara, natjecatelja koji kopljem pokušavaju
pogoditi alku. Alka je slična kao barbanski prstenac, ali ima jedno polje manje, tj. vanjski krug
pregrađen je s tri prečke. Pogodak u sredinu donosi tri boda, pogodak u polje iznad dva boda,
pogodak u jedno od dva donja polja jedan bod. Slavodobitnik je onaj koji u tri trke osvoji najviše
bodova.
Svojom tradicijom održavanja i prenošenja na mlađe generacije, ove dvije konjičke igre
potaknule su i razvoj nekih novih njihovih inačica. Tako se primjerice u Barbanu održava
mototrka na prstenac i morska trka, a u Sinju i okolici od davnina se trče dječje Alke, među
kojima je najpoznatija Vučkovića dječja alka. Razvojem novih tehnologija, na osnovnoškolskim
razinama počela su se nedavno održavati i robotička natjecanja po uzoru na Trku i Alku.
Premda imaju mnogo sličnosti, Trka i Alka imaju i poneke razlike. Sličnosti možemo
pronaći u sportskom dijelu natjecanja. Na obje je cilj konjanika/alkara pogoditi prstenc/alku i
osvojiti što više bodova. Pravila natjecanja su gotovo ista, kao i dužina staze, mjesto na kojem je
postavljena meta, izgled trkališta itd. Sustav bodovanja je nešto drugačiji, zbog toga što barbanski
prstenac ima jedno polje više od alke. Vrijeme prvog održavanja te najstariji pisani izvori na
talijanskom jeziku, također su neke od sličnosti. Njihovu najveću razliku moguće je pronaći u
svrsi održavanja. Naime, Trka na prstenac se još u 17. st. održavala u turističke svrhe, a tako je i
danas, dok je Sinjska alka utemeljena u spomen na veliku pobjedu nad Turcima 1715. Uz to,
jedna od glavnih odlika Alke je njezina ceremonijalnost i formaliziranost, dok je Trka znatno
neformalnije uređena. Razlika se uočava i u odorama sudionika. Na Trki su svi sudionici u
narodnim nošnjama, a na Alki alkari nose svečane odore viših slojeva društva, dok alkarski
momci nose narodne odore.
Unatoč svim sličnostima i različitostima, jedna i druga predstavljaju važan dio lokalne i
regionalne kulture i tradicijske baštine. Sinjska alka dobila je 2010. međunarodno priznanje
svoga značaja, upisom na UNESCO-vu listu svjetske baštine. Trka na prstenac i Sinjska alka
vremenom su postale najvažniji događaj u kraju u kojem se održavaju, a po svojim povijesnim
tradicijama, pravilima održavanja, svečanostima, odorama i atraktivnosti natjecanja i dio hrvatske
kulturne baštine.
The jousting tournaments, competitions of running and aiming at the target (the
“prstenac”/the “alka”) originated from the medieval knight tournaments. They reached the peak
of their popularity in the 17th century, when they were held also in the area of today’s Croatia. In
Istria there are records of those in Barban and Savičenta, in Dalmatia were held in Zadar,
Makarska, Imotski, Dubrovnik and one in Sinj, which is held still nowadays. In this competitions
could take part only aristocrats or wealthy people who owned horses and the necessary
equipment. With the gradual disappearance of the feudal system, these competitions started to
cease, with the exception of the Barban’s so-called “Trka na prstenac” (Tilting at the ring), which
was reestablished, and the “Sinjska Alka” (Alka of Sinj), which has been held continuously. Since
the competitions had only entertainment value, they didn’t receive greater attention from its
contemporary writers, therefore the records of these are very scarce. The records that have been
preserved are a very valuable testimony about their history.
The first and the oldest written mention of the Trka na prstenac (Tilting at the ring) in
Barban dates from 1696. It is a transcript of the Declaration made by the feudal lord of Barban at
the free fair on Pentecost. In order to attract as many visitors as possible, the Trka na prstenac
was organized. The Declaration established eight clauses according to which the race would take
place. Ten horsemen participated and the winner was Ottavio Quellis. Records of three more
competitions are preserved and they were all written until 1703. After that, written records of this
event in Barban are lost.
According to historical records, in 1976, on the initiative of Barban’s activists, the Trka
na prstenac was revived. Since then, it takes place every year in August. The event lasts three
days and begins on Friday, when the flag of the Tilting at the ring’s Society is raised. On
Saturday a series of sport events are organized, as well as the competition Trka za viticu (Titling
at the ringlet), which is also a rehearsal; whereas the main competition takes place on Sunday.
The preparations and qualifications of the horseman start fifteen days before. The race takes place
according to the rules made in 1976, which are based on those from 1696, as well as to the
supplements of these made in 2002. 16 horsemen born in Istria or Liburnia, aged between 18 and
60, participate in the competition. From the start to the prstenac, the racecourse is 150 meters
long, and the horsemen have to pass it at full gallop within 12 seconds. The horsemen attempt to
hit the prstenac (target) with the spear. The prstenac hangs on a rope above the racecourse and
consists of two concentric rings connected by bars, thus forming four outer and one central field.
The hit into the centre brings three points, into the upper field two points, into the lower field one
point and into the left or right field half a point. The winner is the one who in three races collects
most points (“punti”). The horsemen wear traditional folk costumes of the area they come from
and they must have all the required equipment and their own spearman. The spearmen help them
to take care of the horses and at the end of the race they accept their spear. The horsemen, the
spearmen, the persons who lift the prstenac and the members of the Court of Honour are an
integral part of the Trka and of the procession, which, before the competition, moves through
Barban arriving ultimately at the racecourse in Gradišće. It’s been forty years since the Trka is
revived and it has become a part of the local and regional tradition and one of the most
recognizable touristic events in Istria.
A similar equestrian competition is held in Sinj, in the Cetina region. The Alka is also a
competition in which the alkars try to hit the alka (target), which hangs on a rope above the
racecourse. From its beginning, the Alka is held to commemorate the victory over the Ottomans
in 1715 and in honor of the Madonna of Sinj, who, according to the legend, saved the city. The
oldest written records of the Alka are two sonnets and an ode by Julije Bajamonti from 1784. The
fundamental document, based on which it takes place today, is a Statute from 1833. This Statute
regulates in detail the preparations for the Alka, the ceremony on the day of the competition, who
are the participants, what is their uniform and equipment like, the constitution of the procession
and process of the competition.
The preparations for the Alka, so-called “prove”, start fifteen days before. The
competition for the “Bara” is held two days before, and the competition for the “Čoja” a day
before. They both have the same rules as the Alka, the only difference is that the competitors
don’t wear lavish uniforms. On the Alka day, the ceremony starts at dawn and during the day
various events are held. Before the competition, the alkars gather in the Alka Halls, where the
Duke checks the weapons, the equipment and the alkars’ outfits. After that, the Alka procession
is formed and it heads towards the Alka racecourse. The procession is one of the most impressive
parts of the ceremony, and it consists of the Duke, alkar troops and alkars’ squire troops. The
alkars are dressed in old-fashioned lavish uniforms of high social classes. The uniforms of the
Duke and the “alaj-čauš” (the commander of the alkars’ squire troops) are much more decorated
and more lavish than the others. The alkars’ squires wear traditional folk costumes of the
peasants of the Cetina region. The horses are also lavishly equipped, especially the horse of the
Duke and the “edek” – the only horse without a rider, that represents the war trophy from 1715.
The Alka Knights Society in Sinj takes care of the organization and only its members can
participate in the Alka. The Alka is held each year in August at the so-called Alka racecourse. In
the competition 11 to 17 alkars participate and they try to hit the alka with the spear. The alka is
similar to the Barban’s prstenac, but it has one field less, i.e. the outer circle has only three bars.
The hit into the centre brings three points, into the upper field two points and the hit into one of
the two lower fields one point. The winner is the one who in three races wins most points.
These two equestrian competitions, with their tradition of organizing and transmitting to
younger generations, have prompted the development of some new variants of them. For
example, the “Mototrka na prstenac” (Motorace at the ring) and “Morska trka” (Sea race) are
held in Barban, whareas in Sinj and surrounding area, exist since ancient times the “Dječje Alke”
(Children’s Alkas), the most famous of which is the Vučkovića dječja Alka (Vučković children’s
Alka). The development of new technologies led elementary schools to start organizing robotic
competitions similar to the Trka and Alka.
Although the Alka and the Trka have many similarities, they also differ in some ways.
Similarities can be found in the sport part of the competition. The goal in both competitions is
that the horsemen/alkars hit the prstenac/alka and score as many points as possible. The
competition rules are quite the same, as well as the length of the racecourse, the location where
the target is placed, the aspect of the racetrack and so on. The scoring system is slightly different,
because the Barban’s prstenac has a field more than the alka. Other similarities are the first time
when they were held and the fact that the oldest written records of them are in Italian. The biggest
difference between the two is their purpose: namely the Trka na prstenac was held in the 17th
century for touristic purposes, and so it is today, the Alka on the other hand was established in
memory of the great victory over the Ottomans in 1715. In addition, one of the main features of
the Alka is her ceremonial and formal quality, whereas the Trka is much more informally
organized. A difference is noticeable in the uniforms of the participants, too. In the Trka all
participants wear traditional folk costumes, whereas in the Alka the alkars wear lavish uniforms
of high social classes and the alkars’ squires wear traditional uniforms.
Despite all the similarities and differences, both are an important part of the local and
regional culture and of the traditional heritage. In 2010, the Sinjska Alka received the
international recognition of her importance and was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage
List. The Trka na prstenac and the Sinjska Alka became in the course of time the most important
events in the area where they are held, and for their historical traditions, rules, ceremonies,
costumes and attractiveness of the competition a part of the Croatian cultural heritage, too.
 
Izdavač Sveučilište Jurja Dobrile u Puli.
University of Pula.
 
Suradnik Bertoša, Slaven
 
Datum 2015-09-07
 
Vrsta resursa info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis
text
 
Format (na primjer PDF) application/pdf
 
Identifikator https://repozitorij.unipu.hr/islandora/object/unipu:196
https://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:137:659577
 
Jezik hrv
 
Prava http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess